What is Database (DBMS)
What is Database (DBMS)
In this tutorial, you will learn introduction of DBMS like, what is Data, what is Database, evolution of Database and Key features of Database.
Database Management System (DBMS)
Database Management System is a software or technology used to manage data from a database. Some popular databases are MySQL, Oracle, MongoDB, etc. DBMS provides many operations. Example; creating a database, storing in the database, updating an existing database, delete from the database. DBMS is a system that enables you to store, modify and retrieve data in an organized way.
What is Data
Data is a collection of a distinct small unit of information. It can be used in a variety of forms like text, numbers, media, bytes, etc. it can be stored in pieces of paper or electronic memory, etc.
Word ‘Data’ is originated from the word ‘datum’ that means ‘single piece of information.’ It is plural of the word datum.
In computing, Data is information that can be translated into a form for efficient movement and processing. Data is interchangeable.
What is Database
A database is a collection of organized and structured data that is stored in a computer system for easy access, retrieval, and management. It is designed to efficiently store, manage, and manipulate large amounts of data in a consistent and reliable manner.
A database typically consists of tables, which are organized into rows and columns, with each row representing a record and each column representing a field or attribute. Tables are related to one another through keys, which are unique identifiers that establish relationships between the data in different tables. The most common type of database is a relational database, where data is stored in tables with predefined relationships between them.
Databases are widely used in various industries and applications, such as business, finance, healthcare, education, e-commerce, and more. They are essential for storing, retrieving, and managing data efficiently, enabling organizations to organize and analyze large amounts of information to make informed decisions. Popular examples of databases include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB, among others.
Evolution of Database
Databases have evolved significantly over the years, driven by advancements in technology, changing requirements of businesses and applications, and evolving data management practices. Here are some key milestones in the evolution of databases:
Flat file databases: In the early days of computing, data was stored in simple flat files, where data was organized in a sequential manner without any formal structure. Flat file databases were simple and easy to implement, but lacked flexibility and scalability.
Hierarchical databases: In the 1960s, hierarchical databases were introduced, where data was organized in a tree-like structure with parent-child relationships. Hierarchical databases were efficient for storing data with one-to-many relationships, but were complex to manage and lacked flexibility in handling changing data requirements.
Network databases: In the 1970s, network databases emerged as a more flexible alternative to hierarchical databases. Network databases allowed data to be organized in a graph-like structure with multiple relationships, providing more flexibility in data modeling. However, they were still complex and difficult to manage.
Relational databases: In the 1970s, Edgar F. Codd introduced the concept of relational databases, which revolutionized the field of data management. Relational databases used a tabular structure with rows and columns, and employed the concept of primary and foreign keys to establish relationships between tables. Relational databases offered a more standardized and flexible way of storing and retrieving data, and quickly gained popularity.
Object-oriented databases: In the 1980s, object-oriented databases emerged as an alternative to relational databases, where data could be represented as objects with attributes and methods. Object-oriented databases were particularly suited for handling complex data types, such as multimedia data, and provided better support for object-oriented programming languages. However, they did not gain widespread adoption due to their complexity and limited scalability.
NoSQL databases: In the late 2000s, with the explosion of big data and the need for handling large volumes of unstructured or semi-structured data, NoSQL (Not Only SQL) databases emerged as a new type of database management system. NoSQL databases, such as document-oriented, columnar, key-value, and graph databases, offered different data models and allowed for greater scalability, flexibility, and performance in handling diverse data types.
Cloud databases: In recent years, cloud databases have gained prominence with the advent of cloud computing. Cloud databases are offered as a service (DBaaS) and are hosted and managed by cloud providers, allowing for easy scalability, accessibility, and cost-effectiveness. Cloud databases have become popular for modern applications that require flexible and scalable data storage solutions.
Newer trends: Recent trends in the evolution of databases include the rise of data lakes, which are large-scale data storage and processing repositories that allow for storing and analyzing massive amounts of data in its raw form, and the adoption of distributed databases, which leverage distributed computing and parallel processing to handle large data volumes and high concurrent users.
Key Features of Database
- Data modeling: A DBMS provides tools for creating and modifying data models, which define the structure and relationships of the data in a database.
- Data storage and retrieval: A DBMS is responsible for storing and retrieving data from the database, and can provide various methods for searching and querying the data.
- Concurrency control: A DBMS provides mechanisms for controlling concurrent access to the database, to ensure that multiple users can access the data without conflicting with each other.
- Data integrity and security: A DBMS provides tools for enforcing data integrity and security constraints, such as constraints on the values of data and access controls that restrict who can access the data.
- Backup and recovery: A DBMS provides mechanisms for backing up and recovering the data in the event of a system failure.
- DBMS can be classified into two types: Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Non-Relational Database Management System (NoSQL or Non-SQL).
- RDBMS: Data is organized in the form of tables and each table has a set of rows and columns. The data is related to each other through primary and foreign keys.
- NoSQL: Data is organized in the form of key-value pairs, document, graph, or column-based. These are designed to handle large-scale, high-performance scenarios.
So, in this tutorial you have learned introduction of DBMS and some basic topics, if you have any doubts and problems regarding this tutorial, you can ask me in the comment section.